Tag: Harm reduction

Lessons learned from the HCV Symposium Part 1: Blinders off, and who cleans up after the fight?

By Leona Quewezance and Stephanie Massey

On February 27, 2016 CATIE had the opportunity to host another Learning Institute (LI) at the 5th Canadian Symposium on HCV in Montreal, Quebec. Learning Institutes are exciting knowledge-exchange and capacity-building opportunities for stakeholders engaged in Hep C prevention, treatment and care across Canada. Our 15 rapporteurs learned about current research and worked together to summarize that information and bring it back to their communities.

In part one of this two-part blog series, two rapporteurs reflect on their experiences at the LI.

Six ways to make harm reduction work in Canada’s prisons

By Emily van der Meulen and Sandra Ka Hon Chuemily

sandraIn Canada today, prisoners who inject drugs need to share needles, many of which have been used numerous times by other prisoners. Without access to sterile injection equipment, rates of HIV and hepatitis C virus are much higher behind bars than in the broader community. Prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs) are an important way to address this public health problem, yet Canadian correctional authorities often claim they won’t work. A recent study demonstrates that PNSPs are indisputably feasible in Canada and should be implemented now.

A new report, On Point: Recommendations for Prison-Based Needle and Syringe Programs in Canada, outlines the findings of a two-year study that involved consultation with a range of diverse stakeholders, including former prisoners themselves. The research was conducted by representatives from the Department of Criminology at Ryerson University, PASAN (a community-based AIDS service organization that provides community development, education, and support to prisoners and ex-prisoners in Ontario), and the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network (one of the world’s leading organizations tackling the legal and human rights issues related to HIV).

Supervised injection in Toronto will improve the health of people who inject drugs

By Drs. Ahmed Bayoumi and Carol Strike

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Over the past year, advocates or elected officials in Montreal, Ottawa, Victoria, Baltimore, New York City, Ithaca (NY), Seattle, San Francisco, Glasgow and four cities in Ireland have called  for the implementation of supervised injection services. More recently, Toronto’s Medical Officer of Health Dr. David McKeown recommended that the Board of Health start a community consultation process toward establishing supervised injection services within three existing facilities in the city. The Board voted unanimously in favour.  As the lead investigators of the TOSCA study  (the Toronto and Ottawa Supervised Consumption Assessment), we support Dr. McKeown’s proposal and look forward to the opening of these services in Toronto.

Health Canada’s statement on the status of naloxone is a welcome drug policy paradigm shift

By Dr. Lynne LeonardLynne Leonard pic

The administration of naloxone, a chemical compound that effectively temporarily reverses the effects of an opioid overdose, is recommended by the World Health Organization to be used in the case of an opioid overdose. Naloxone is currently available in Canada only in an injectable form and by prescription only; it can only be administered to the person named on the prescription, not to a third party. With the objective of making naloxone more widely available in Canada to address the growing number of opioid overdoses, and consequent on a review of health and safety data, Health Canada has suggested an amendment to the prescription drug list to allow non-prescription use of naloxone specifically for emergency use for opioid overdose outside hospital settings. A public consultation on the proposal has been initiated and if the change in status continues to be supported by consultation evidence, the change will be finalized.

Canada’s anti-harm reduction guardians close door on hepatitis strategy

By Laurie Edmiston and Melisa Dickie

We just returned from the first World Hepatitis Summit hosted by the World Hepatitis Alliance (WHA) in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Scottish government. The Scottish government was a partner because Scotland has exercised leadership in the fight against hepatitis C and, unlike Canada, has a national strategy to combat hepatitis C.*

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The focus of the World Hepatitis Summit was viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B and C. Hepatitis B has a vaccine; giving it to newborns or school-age children in Canada is standard practice. However, this is not the case in much of the developing world, and hepatitis B continues to be endemic in many regions. Some countries including China, Pakistan, India and the Philippines also have significant hepatitis C epidemics.

In Canada we are mostly concerned with hepatitis C, and its disproportionate impact on marginalized populations including people who use drugs, Indigenous communities, prisoners and immigrants and newcomers from endemic countries. Many of us in the HIV field have recently embraced efforts to integrate hepatitis C into our movement.

Some quick facts:

  • In many countries, inadequate infection control practices (such as re-using needles and syringes in healthcare facilities) are responsible for hepatitis B and C transmission.
  • It is estimated that there are at least 16 million people who inject drugs worldwide, 10 million of whom are infected with hepatitis C, compared to 3 million who are infected with HIV. Hepatitis C prevalence as high as 80% is not uncommon among people who inject drugs in some parts of the world.
  • Since 2007, more people have died of hepatitis C than HIV in the United States.
  • There is evidence that needle syringe exchange and opiate substitution treatment in prisons reduce injecting risk behaviour. The United Nations and the WHO advocate for needle syringe programs (NSP) in prisons. The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, CATIE, the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network and the Prisoners with HIV/AIDS Support Action Network are engaged in a court challenge to provide NSPs in Canadian prisons.

In light of the hepatitis epidemic, the WHO established the Global Hepatitis Programme in December 2011. The World Health Assembly asked the WHO to assess the feasibility of eliminating hepatitis B and C. To address this, the WHO is currently developing the first global strategy for hepatitis in broad consultation with global stakeholders. In May 2016 the resulting draft will be presented to the World Health Assembly for adoption by member states.

The WHO has developed a provisional document to assist in the development and assessment of national viral hepatitis plans. It is an excellent document that could assist Canada in developing our own hepatitis strategy. Dramatically driving down the hepatitis C epidemic is possible with the recent hepatitis C treatment advances and other key interventions such as safer injection practices, harm reduction and scaling up testing and linkage to care. Preventing and treating saves costs and lives!

How will Canada’s Minister of Health respond? Dr. Gottfried Hirnschall, Director of HIV/AIDS Department and Global Hepatitis Programme at the WHO, told us that Canada is unwilling to sign on to the WHO’s first global strategy for hepatitis due to the inclusion of the term “harm reduction” in the language. At the World Hepatitis Summit, harm reduction warranted minimal mention; it is accepted policy and practice in most of the world. In Canada, every province and most municipalities of every size have needle exchange programs, opiate substitution programs, and we have the example of the exhaustively studied, evidence-informed and highly successful supervised injection site in Vancouver. Yet on the world stage, Canada is represented by anti-harm reduction guardians. Embarrassing and unconscionable.

Laurie Edmiston is Executive Director of CATIE, Canada’s source for HIV and hepatitis C information.

Melisa Dickie is Associate Director, Community Health Programming at CATIE.

*NOTE: Those able to attend the upcoming CATIE Forum on October 15 and 16 will have the privilege of hearing more about Scotland’s hepatitis C action plan in a presentation by Dr. Norah Palmateer.